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BITUMEN GLOSSARY

GLOSSARY OF THE BITUMEN INDUSTRY

This glossary represents a consolidated collection of terms used in the BITUMEN industry

• ACID MODIFIED ASPHALT/BITUMEN
BITUMEN modified by the addition of inorganic acids, typically phosphoric, or polyphosphoric acid.

• AIR BLOWING
The process by which compressed air is blown into a BITUMEN feedstock typically at 230-260°C (446–500°F), sometimes in the presence of catalysts (typically ferric chloride, phosphoric acid, or phosphorus pentoxide). This process results in complex reactions which raise the softening point and viscosity of the bitumen. See OXIDISED BITUMENS.

• AIR BLOWN ASPHALTS
See OXIDISED BITUMENS

• AIR BLOWN BITUMENS
BITUMEN products produced by AIR BLOWING. See OXIDISED BITUMENS.

• AIR REFINED BITUMENS
Penetration bitumens produced by partial blowing. Archaic term, no longer in use.

• AIR RECTIFIED BITUMEN (synonym SEMI BLOWN BITUMEN)
A bitumen that has been subjected to mild oxidation with the goal of producing a bitumen meeting paving grade bitumen specifications. Air rectified bitumens are functionally the same as straight-run bitumens. Air rectified bitumens are used in paving applications as well as selected roofing applications, such as shingle saturants and Type 1 Built Up Roofing Asphalt (BURA),and also for some industrial applications. AIRRECTIFIED BITUMENS have a PENETRATION INDEX (PI) <+2.0.

• ASPHALT
A mixture of BITUMEN and mineral materials used as a paving material that is typically produced at temperatures in the range of 140-160°C (280-320°F). In North America the term ASPHALT is synonymous with BITUMEN as used in Europe and also the term HOT MIX ASPHALT.

• ASPHALT BINDER
Term used in the U.S. and some other countries for BITUMEN.

• ASPHALT CEMENT
Term used in the U.S. and some other countries for BITUMEN. Use of the term ASPHALT CEMENT is decreasing in use in favor of ASPHALT BINDER. Historically ASPHALT CEMENT referred to BITUMEN products that contained no modifiers or additives.

• ASPHALT COLD MIXES
ASPHALT mixtures made using CUTBACK BITUMENS or BITUMEN EMULSIONS, which can be placed at ambient temperatures.

• ASPHALTENES
Highly polar aromatic materials. Asphaltenes have high viscosity or stiffness at ambient temperatures and are responsible for the overall stiffness of BITUMENS. They can be precipitated with n-heptane and are sometimes referred to as n-heptane insolubles.

• ASPHALT MASTIC
A term of art in ASPHALT mixture technology referring to the combination of bitumen and the fine mineral portion of the aggregate generally comprised of mineral matter finer than 150 μm.

• ASPHALT MIXES (MIXTURES)
Mixtures of graded mineral aggregates (sized stone fractions, sands and fillers) with a controlled amount of BITUMEN.

• ATMOSPHERIC DISTILLATION
Distillation at atmospheric pressure.

• ATMOSPHERIC RESIDUUM
Residuum of ATMOSPHERIC DISTILLATION of CRUDE OIL.

• BASE OILS
Petroleum-derived products consisting of complex mixtures of straight and branch-chained paraffinic, naphthenic (cycloparaffin) and aromatic hydrocarbons, with carbon numbers of 15 or more and boiling-points in the range of 300–600°C (570–1110°F).Depending on climatic conditions BASE OILS can be used to reduce the low stiffness of BITUMENS to resist low temperature cracking of pavements.

• BENDING BEAM RHEOMETER (BBR)
A machine used to determine the low temperature stiffness properties of BITUMENS that have been laboratory aged to simulate extended aging of the BITUMEN in ASPHALT pavements. Results are part of the PERFORMANCE GRADED BITUMEN specification.

• BINDER
According to EN12597; Material serving to adhere to aggregate and ensure cohesion of the mixture. A more general term used to identify BITUMEN plus potential modifiers used to produce ASPHALT mixes. The term BINDER reflects that some ASPHALT mixes may utilize MODIFIED BITUMENS.

• BINDER REPLACMENT RATIO, BINDER REPLACEMENT %
When RECLAIMED ASPHALT PAVEMENT (RAP) or RECLAIMED ASPHALT SHINGLE (RAS) is added to a bituminous paving mixture the ratio of the amount of bitumen contributed by the RAP/RAS to the total bitumen content of bituminous paving mixture is referred to as the BINDER REPLACEMENT RATIO. Older terminology referred to the ratio as a percent and therefore BINDER REPLACMENT % can still be found in the literature.

• BIO-BINDERS / BIO BITUMENS, BIO-FLUXED BITUMEN
A general term applied to a variety of PETROLEUM BITUMEN alternatives produced solely from nonpetroleum, renewable chemical sources or from blends of non-petroleum, renewable chemical sources and conventional petroleum BITUMEN. These non-petroleum sources include but are not limited to vegetable oils (generally reacted to substantially remove fatty acid functionality), tall oil fatty acid derivatives, tall oil rosin acid derivatives, lignin, manure, cashew nut shell oil (urushiol), vegetable based waxes, and many others.

• BIO REJUVENATORS
Term applied to non-petroleum-derived, renewable and generally vegetable or tall-oil based softening agents added to petroleum based bitumen to improve the performance of the blended product with RAP and/or RAS containing asphalt mixtures.

• BITUMEN BLOCKS
Small size blocks (typically 20kg or 25 kg) of BONDING BITUMEN for being melted in kettles.

• BITUMEN, PETROLEUM DERIVED
A dark brown to black cement-like residuum obtained from the distillation of suitable CRUDE OILS. The distillation processes may involve one or more of the following: atmospheric distillation, vacuum distillation, steam distillation. Further processing of distillation residuum may be needed to yield a material whose physical properties are suitable for commercial applications. These additional processes can involve air oxidation, solvent stripping or blending of residua of different stiffness characteristics.

• BITUMEN EMISSIONS
The complex mixture of aerosols, vapours and gases from heated BITUMEN and products containing BITUMEN; although the term “BITUMEN FUME” is often used in reference to total emissions, technically bitumen fume does not include gases (i.e. solid particulate matter, aerosols and vapour).

• BITUMEN EMISSION (FUME) CONDENSATE
see also ASPHALT FUME CONDENSATE
The condensate of emissions from heated BITUMEN; the chemical composition may vary with the temperature and type of BITUMEN. It typically has a boiling range similar to kerosene.

• BITUMEN EMULSION
A mixture of two normally immiscible components (BITUMEN and water) and an emulsifying agent (usually a surfactant).Bitumen emulsions are utilised in paving, roofing and waterproofing operations. These materials are called EMULSIFIED ASPHALTS in North America.

• BITUMEN EXTRACT
The fraction of BITUMEN that is soluble in organic solvents, such as benzene, toluene, carbon disulphide, or dimethyl sulphoxide.

• BITUMEN FUME
The complex mixture of vapors and aerosols emitted from heated BITUMEN.

• BITUMEN GRADING TERMINOLOGY
There are currently three main grading systems employed world-wide for identifying and specifying BITUMENS used in road construction. These systems are PENETRATION, VISCOSITY and PERFORMANCE GRADED. Although each system has test methods that are unique to that system, similar BITUMENS are used across all grading systems. The particular system used within a given country or region is generally a result of historical practices or governmental stipulations.

• BITUMEN ENAMEL (BITUMEN PAINT)
An external coating for protecting steel pipes. The term can also be used for bitumen paints (formulated CUTBACK BITUMENS or BITUMEN EMULSIONS)

• BITUMEN MACADAM
A type of ASPHALT mix with a high stone content and containing 3–5% by weight of BITUMEN.

• BITUMEN PAINT
A CUTBACK BITUMEN made to treat bare metal or concrete or wood surfaces giving a bond between the surface and an ENAMEL or a bituminous membrane or bonding bitumen.

• BITUMEN PAINT
A specialised CUTBACK BITUMEN product that contains relatively small amounts of other materials that are not native to BITUMEN or to the diluents typically used in cutback products, such as lamp-black, aluminum flakes, and mineral pigments. They are used as a protective
coating in waterproofing operations and other similar applications.

• BITUMEN PRIMER
A CUTBACK BITUMEN made to treat bare metal surfaces giving a bond between the metal and an
ENAMEL. In North America a PRIMER is a spray coating to bond and underlying layer to the first layer of HOT MIX ASPHALT. As such it can be a BITUMEN CUTBACK or BITUMEN EMULSION.

• BITUMEN ROOFING FELT
A sheet material, impregnated with BITUMEN, generally supplied in rolls and used in roof construction.

• BITUMEN VAPOUR
Refers to vapours which can include gases from heated BITUMEN.

• BITUMINOUS
Of or related to BITUMEN. In this document the terms BITUMEN and BITUMINOUS refer xclusively to petroleum derived BITUMEN as defined above.

• BLENDED BITUMENS
Blends of two or more BITUMENS with different physical characteristics or blends of BITUMEN(s).

• BLOWING STILL
(Also known as OXIDISER, Bitumen Blowing Unit, or Bitumen Oxidation Unit.) Equipment used to OXIDISE BITUMEN.

• BONDING BITUMEN
OXIDISED BITUMEN or POLYMER MODIFIED BITUMEN used for HOT APPLIED ROOFING

• BUILT UP ROOFING (BUR)
– North America: A continuous roofing membrane consisting of plies of saturated organic (e.g., cellulose) felts or coated inorganic (e.g., glass fiber) felts, assembled in place with alternate layers of BITUMEN or COAL TAR PITCH, and surfaced with mineral aggregate, a granule surfaced sheet, or a roof coating.
– Europe: A continuous roofing membrane consisting of plies of coated inorganic (e.g., glass fiber) felts, assembled in place with alternate layers of BITUMEN, and surfaced with mineral aggregate, a granule surfaced sheet, or a roof coating.

• BUILT UP ROOFING ASPHALT (BURA)
OXIDIZED BITUMEN used in the construction of low slope built up roofing (BUR) systems

• CATALYTIC AIR BLOWN BITUMENS

OXIDISED BITUMENS produced using catalysts in AIR BLOWING

• COAL TAR
A dark brown to black, highly aromatic material manufactured during the high-temperature carbonization of bituminous coals which differs from bitumen substantially in composition and physical characteristics. It has previously been used in the roofing and paving industries as an alternative to BITUMEN.

• COAL TAR PITCH
A black or dark brown cementitious solid that is obtained as a residue in the partial evaporation or fractional distillation of COAL TAR. COAL TAR PITCH has been used in the past in roofing as an alternative to BITUMEN.

• COATING BITUMEN
An AIR BLOWN or OXIDISED and/or POLYMER MODIFIED BITUMEN used to manufacture roofing membranes or shingles

• COLD ADHESIVE
Bituminous CUTBACK used as a glue for application at ambient temperature of POLYMER MODIFIED BITUMEN membranes.

• COLD APPLIED ROOFING BITUMEN
BITUMEN roofing products that are applied at ambient temperatures at the work place without any heating (e.g. peel and stick bitumen membrane or membranes applied with the use of a cold adhesive)

• COLD IN PLACE RECYCLING (CIR)
Utilisation of an integrated system to grind or mill existing bituminous pavement to a size generally smaller than 37.5 mm and incorporate new BITUMEN with an integrated mixing system into the reclaimed material followed by spreading or using an integrated paving machine to produce a road surface which is then compacted to a target density. The new BITUMEN is in the form of a BITUMEN EMULSION or a foamed bitumen.

• COLLOID MILL
High-speed shearing device in which hot bitumen can be dispersed using a surfactant in an aqueous solution to produce a BITUMEN EMULSION

• COLOURED MINERAL GRANULES
Natural or factory colored minerals used as light surface protection for BITUMEN membranes or bitumen shingles.

• CRACKING RESIDUE BITUMENS [THERMAL BITUMENS]
Archaic term, no longer in use

• CRUDE OIL
See CRUDE PETROLEUM.

• CRUDE PETROLEUM
A naturally-occurring mixture, consisting predominantly of hydrocarbons but also containing sulphur, nitrogen or oxygen derivatives of hydrocarbons, which can be removed from the earth in a liquid state.

• CUTBACK BITUMENS (PETROLEUM)
BITUMEN whose viscosity has been reduced by the addition of a CUTBACK SOLVENT derived from petroleum.

• CUTBACK SOLVENT (PETROLEUM)
Relatively volatile petroleum solvent used in the manufacture of CUTBACK BITUMEN. Typically WHITE SPIRIT (STODDARD SOLVENT) and kerosene are the petroleum derived solvents employed.

• CYCLICS (NAPHTHENE AROMATICS)
Compounds with aromatic and naphthenic nuclei with side chain constituents. They are viscous liquids and represent a significant roportion of the dispersion medium for the ASPHALTENES and adsorbed resins in BITUMEN.

• DRUM MIXER
An ASPHALT mixing device in which mixtures of MINERAL AGGREGATE and BITUMEN are heated and combined continuously in a rotating drum.

• DYNAMIC SHEAR RHEOMETER
A testing device used to determine the stiffness of BITUMENS over a range of temperatures and test frequencies. Typically a standard amount of BITUMEN (25 mm diameter by 1 mm thickness) tested between two flat plates (25 mm in diameter). An oscillatory stress or strain of known value is applied to the BITUMEN sample and the resultant strain or stress is measured. From these data the stiffness of the BITUMEN is calculated. The stiffness results are part of the specification within the PERFORMANCE GRADED system of specifications.

• DURABILITY TESTING
See WEATHERING TEST

• ELASTOMER
A polymeric substance (natural or synthetic)which when stretched to a length that is less than its point of rupture and released will recovery substantially to its originally length. Examples are vulcanised natural rubber, styrene butadiene latex rubber, styrene butadiene styrene block copolymer.

• EMULSIFIED ASPHALTS
See BITUMEN EMULSIONS.

• EQUIVISCOUS TEMPERATURE (EVT)
The temperature at which BITUMEN has a viscosity that is optimum for application in BUILT UP ROOFING (BUR) systems. For mop application the optimum apparent viscosity is 125 centipoise (cP), for mechanical application it is 75cP.

• FILLER (Paving)
Fine mineral matter employed to give body to a BITUMINOUS BINDER or to fill the voids between aggregate particles.

• FILLER (Roofing)

Fine mineral matter, typically limestone, or slate dust mixed with BITUMEN prior to being applied as a coating in the manufacture of ROOFING SHINGLES and other roofing products.

• FLASH POINT
The temperature at which a combustible vapour forms above the surface of BITUMEN in a specific test method. Methods used for ROOFING BITUMEN products are EN ISO 2592 or ASTMD92 for Open Cup Flashpoint and EN ISO 2719 or ASTMD93 for Closed Cup Flashpoint.

• FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS
Road surfacings made from layers of ASPHALT mixtures.

• FLUXED BITUMEN (PETROLEUM)
A BITUMEN whose viscosity has been reduced by the addition of a flux oil derived from petroleum. Note: Typically gas oils of various distillation ranges are employed as the flux oil. FLUXED BITUMEN differs from CUTBACK BITUMENS which also are reduced viscosity BITUMENS in that the flux oils have negligible volatility at ambient temperatures compared to the petroleum solvents used to produce CUTBACK BITUMENS.

• FLUX
This term has different meanings in different regions. e.g;
– North America: also referred to as ROOFING FLUX. A term of art referring to straight-run bitumen from which OXIDIZED BITUMEN is made. Typically soft BITUMENS [less than 50 Pa.s@60°C (140°F)] are used, although BITUMENS of higher viscosity can be included within the definition of FLUX.
– Europe: FLUX refers to FLUX or FLUX OIL; Relatively involatile fluid (oil) used in the manufacture of FLUXED BITUMEN.

• FLUX OILS (PETROLEUM)
Relatively non-volatile fluid (oil) used in the manufacture of fluxed bitumen, it also refers to the diluent used in the manufacture of OXIDISED BITUMEN.

• FOREMAN
Supervises a crew or a particular operation in the placement and compaction process of ASPHALT.

• FUME SUPPRESSING BUR BITUMENS
Proprietary BUR BITUMEN products which contain small amounts of polymer (added during manufacture or at the jobsite) that forms a layer on the surface of the heated BITUMEN, lowering the rate of fume generation. Also known as Low Fuming BITUMENS.

• GAS OIL
A liquid petroleum distillate with a viscosity and boilingrange between those of KEROSENE and lubricating oil.

• GILSONITE
A natural, resinous hydrocarbon.

• GLASS MAT OR FELT
A non-woven mat made with short glass fibers adhered together with a resin and suitable for coating and impregnation with BITUMEN for roofing products.

• GROUND TIRE RUBBER (GTR) MODIFIED BITUMEN
BITUMEN to which rubber reclaimed from scrap tyres and ground to various mesh sizes has been added. The tyre rubber mesh size various depending on the specific processing method being employed. Mesh size used can be as large as 20 mesh (0.841 mm) and as small as GTR finer than 80 mesh (0.177 mm).

• HARD BITUMEN
A rheologically stiff bitumen possessing low penetration value and high softening-point. These are used in the manufacture of high modulus ASPHALT MIXTURES.

• HOT APPLIED ROOFING
Application of roofing membranes with hot BONDING BITUMEN as a glue by mopping, pouring, or with mechanical spreaders (pour & roll technique).This is also called HOT BONDING ROOFING.

• HOT BONDING ROOFING
See HOT APPLIED ROOFING.

• HOT MIX ASPHALT
A mixture of bitumen and mineral materials used as a paving material that is typically produced at temperatures in the range of 140-160°C (280-320°F). In Europe, the term is synonymous with ASPHALT.

• HEAT WELDED ROOFING
See TORCHING

• KEROSENE (KEROSINE)
A petroleum distillate consisting of hydrocarbons with carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C9 through C16 and boiling in the range of 150–290°C (300–550°F)

• LABORERS
Site workers that perform miscellaneous tasks on work sites.

• LAKE ASPHALT
Most common form of NATURAL ASPHALT, occurring in Trinidad

• LOSS ON HEATING
A common industrial BITUMEN test which measures the weight loss after exposing a small BITUMEN sample to 163°C (325°F) for 5 hours. See ASTM D6, also part of EN 12607-1 & -2.

• LOW SLOPE ROOFING
Roofing products designed for a roof slope of less than or equal to 14 degrees.

• MALTENES
Relatively low molecular weight oily fraction of bitumen. The maltenes are believed to dissolve, or disperse the ASPHALTENES in the colloidal structure of bitumen. They are the n-heptane soluble fraction of bitumen.

• MASTIC ASPHALT
MASTIC ASPHALT (MA) is a voidless asphalt mixture with BITUMEN as a BINDER in which the volume of the filler and binder exceeds the volume of remaining voids (see EN13108-6).

• MEMBRANE
A factory made flexible layer of BITUMEN with internal or external incorporation of one or more carriers, supplied in roll form ready for use.

• MILLING or MILLING MACHINE
Milling is the term applied to the use of machine comprising a large rotating mandrel with carbide steel teeth attached to the surface of the mandrel capable removing existing ASPHALT from the road surface. This milled ASPHALT is fed on an integrated conveyer to trucks which haul the milled ASPHALT to a central location where it is stockpiled and ultimately incorporated as RAP into a new ASPHALT pavement.

• MINERAL AGGREGATE
A combination of stone fractions and FILLER

• MODIFIED BITUMENS
BITUMINOUS BINDER whose rheological properties have been modified during manufacture by the use of one or more chemical agents.

• MOPPER
A worker who spreads hot BITUMEN on a roof with a mop.

• THE MULTIPLE STRESS CREEP RECOVERY (MSCR) PROCEDURE
A rheological test performed on a DYNAMIC SHEAR RHEOMETER (DSR) to determine the non- recoverable compliance of a BITUMEN. NON-RECOVERED COMPLIANCE of a BITUMEN has been shown to correlate to the BITUMEN’S contribution to the rutting resistance of an ASPHALT MIXTURE.

• NATURAL ASPHALT
Naturally-occurring mixture of BITUMENS and mineralmatter formed by oil seepages in the earth’s crust then evaporating through geological forces. Natural asphalts include Trinidad Lake, Rock, Gilsonite, Selenice and others.

• NON-RECOVERED COMPLIANCE
A measure of the resistance to permanent deformation that a bitumen in an asphalt mixture contributes to the pavement. Low values of non-recovered compliance, for example values less than 1 kPa-1 or less than 0.5 kPa-1, at a given pavement temperature are very resistant to permanent deformation under heavy or extreme loading conditions.

• OIL (PETROLEUM) VACUUM DISTILLATION BOTTOMS, USED (CAS RN 129893-17-0)
A very complex combination of high molecular weight hydrocarbon consisting mostly of spent polymers and organometallic based additives which have been removed as a non-volatile residue from waste lubricating oils. This material consists primarily of hydrocarbons with a carbon number greater than 25, and with high carbon to hydrogen ratios. This material will contain metals such as zinc, calcium, sodium and magnesium. Numerous trade names exist for this material including RE-REFINED ENGINE OIL BOTTOMS and, VACUUM TOWER ASPHALT EXTENDER.

• OXIDISED BITUMEN (OXIDIZED BITUMEN)
BITUMEN whose rheological properties have been substantially modified by reaction with air at elevated temperatures. This material is also sometimes referred to as “BLOWN BITUMEN” and, in the USA, AIR-BLOWN ASPHALT.

• OXIDISED BITUMEN MEMBRANE
A ROOFING BITUMEN product typically made by coating a glass fiber or polyester mat with a mixture of OXIDISED BITUMEN and mineral filler, and then packaging the finished product in rolls. In North America these products may be made with a mineral granule surface and are called “ROLL ROOFING”.

• OXIDISER
See BLOWING STILL.

• PAH, PAC
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons is the collective name for a large group of several hundred chemicals that have a characteristic structure of two or more fused aromatic rings. They are a class of organic compounds and also a subgroup of the larger family of chemicals – Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (PAC). PAC can include atoms other than carbon and hydrogen, such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulphur.

• PAVER OPERATORS (PAVERS)
Person stationed on top of the PAVING MACHINE (placement machine) to drive it as it receives ASPHALT from delivery trucks and distributes it on the road prior to compaction by rolling.

• PAVING BITUMEN / ASPHALT
A BITUMEN used to coat mineral aggregate, mainly used in the construction and maintenance of paved surfaces and hydraulic works.

• PAVING MACHINE
A machine designed for placement a uniform ASPHALT mat onto a road surface prior to roller compaction.

• PENETRATION GRADED BITUMENS
BITUMENS classified by the depth to which a standard needle will penetrate the BITUMEN sample under specified test conditions. (see ASTM D5 and/or EN 1426 for an explanation of the penetration test).

• PENETRATION INDEX
Indication of the thermal susceptibility of a bituminous binder. The penetration index is calculated from the values of PENETRATION and the SOFTENING POINT. A PENETRATION INDEX of zero is attributed to a bitumen with a PENETRATION at 25°C (77°F) of 200 x 0.1mm and a SOFTENING POINT of 40°C (104°F). The PENETRATION INDEX is calculated as follows (according to EN 12591);

• PENETRATION TEST
Specification test to measure the hardness of BITUMEN under specified conditions. In which the indentation into a BITUMEN in tenths of a millimeter (0.1 mm) at 25°C (77°F) is measured using a standard needle with a loading of 100 grams and 5 seconds duration. Details of the test can be found in ASTM D5 and/or EN 1426 as well as other sources.

• PERFORMANCE GRADED BINDERS
BITUMENS classified based on the research results of the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP).

• PERFORMANCE GRADED (PG)
specifications are based on the stiffness of the bitumen at the high and low temperature environment in which the bitumen will be expected to perform within pavement. Currently

• PERFORMANCE GRADED BITUMENS
Are most widely utilised in the United States and Canada and conform to specifications as stipulated in ASTM D6373, AASHTO M320 and AASHTO M332

• PETROLEUM PITCH
The residue from the distillation of thermal cracked or steam-cracked residuum and/or catalytic cracked clarified oil with a SOFTENING POINT from 40 – 180°C (104 – 356°F). Composed primarily of a complex combination of three or more membered condensed ring aromatic hydrocarbons.

• PLASTOMER
A polymer type which exhibits stiffness and strength but does not recover substantially when deformed. Examples of this type of polymer used in BITUMENS are ethylene vinyl acetate, ethylene methacrylate, polyethylene, and atactic polypropylene

• PLY
A layer of felt or sheet in a roof membrane; a four-ply membrane has at least four plies of felt or sheet at any vertical cross section cut through the membrane.

• POLYMER MODIFIED BITUMEN/ASPHALT (PMB/A)
MODIFIED BITUMEN/ASPHALT in which the modifier used is one or more organic polymers.

• POLYMER MODIFIED BITUMEN MEMBRANE
A factory made flexible layer of STRAIGHT-RUN and/ or OXIDISED bitumen modified with elastomeric or plastomeric polymers with internal or external incorporation of one or more carriers, supplied in roll form ready for use.

POLYPHOSPHORIC ACID (PPA) CAS No: 8017-16-1, Molecular Formula: H6P4O13.
POLYPHOSPHORIC ACID includes long-chain polymerised units of PO4 units. A key feature in
POLYPHOSPHORIC ACID is the absence of free water.

• PROPANE-PRECIPITATED ASPHALT (PROPANE BITUMEN)
See SOLVENT PRECIPITATION.

• PUG-MILL
Mixer used to combine stone materials and BITUMEN in an asphalt-mixing plant. The mixing is effected by high-speed stirring with paddle blades at elevated temperatures

• RAFFINATE
The part of a liquid, especially an oil, remaining after its more soluble components have been extracted by a solvent

• RAKERMAN
Person who shovels and rakes excess HMA, fill in voids and prepare joints for compaction by rolling to ensure a road surface free from defects. Sometimes referred to as LABORER.

• RAP
Acronym for Reclaimed or Recycled Asphalt Pavement. In practice existing asphalt pavement is removed from the roadway and crushed to a useable dimensions (generally less than 25 mm) and incorporated at some percentage into a new paving material. Typically RAP has been added to bituminous paving mixtures in amounts equivalent to BINDER REPLACEMENT RATIOS of 0.10 to 0.25. Recently research has sought to find methods to increase this ratio to as much as 0.50.

• RAS
Acronym for Reclaimed Asphalt Shingles. In practice post-consumer waste shingles are ground to a size generally smaller than 12.5 mm which is then incorporated in bituminous paving mixtures. Typically 3% to 6% RAS is added to a bituminous mixture resulting in a BINDER REPLACEMENT RATIO of approximately 0.15 to 0.25.

• RE-REFINED ENGINE OIL BOTTOMS (REOB)
See OIL (PETROLEUM) VACUUM DISTILLATION BOTTOMS, USED

• REFINERY
A facility composed of a group of separation and chemical engineering unit processes used for refining crude oil into different oil products.

• REJUVENATOR
Term applied to any type of FLUXING OIL or softening agent added to a BITUMEN with the express intent of altering the rheological and compositional properties of aged BITUMEN that is incorporated into the ASPHALT MIXTURE. The aged Bitumen added to the asphalt mixture is generally incorporated through the addition of RAP and/or RAS materials. There is currently no consensus among bitumen technologists as to whether true rejuvenation of aged BITUMEN occurs or whether all such rejuvenators only function to soften the BITUMEN to which they are added and therefore reduce the overall stiffness of the total asphalt mixture.

• RESINS (POLAR AROMATICS)
Very adhesive fractions of relatively high molecular weight present in the MALTENES. They are dispersing agents (referred to as peptisers) for the ASPHALTENES. This fraction is separated using solvent precipitation and adsorption chromatography.

• ROAD OILS
Term sometimes used for very soft VACUUM RESIDUUM or harder BITUMENS that have FLUX OIL added, or CUTBACKS that have been produced using petroleum with a boiling point greater than 225°C (435°F) added to reduce the viscosity. ROAD OILS are generally used to produce ASPHALT paving mixes for use on very low volume roads in moderate to cold climates.

• ROCK ASPHALT
Naturally-occurring form of ASPHALT, usually a combination of bitumen and limestone. .

• ROLL ROOFING
See OXIDISED BITUMEN MEMBRANE or POLYMER MODIFIED MEMBRANE.

• ROLLER OPERATORS (ROLLERS)
Person driving machinery designed to compact the ASPHALT by rolling to finished specifications.

• ROLLING THIN FILM OVEN TEST (RTFOT)
A common paving BITUMEN test which subjects a thin film of BITUMEN on the inside of a rolling glass jar to 163°C (325°F) for 75-85 minutes. See ASTM D2872, or EN 12607-1. The test was designed to simulate aging of the Bitumen through the Hot-Mix plant.

• ROOFER’S FLUX (also called ROOFING FLUX)
A low viscosity, high flashpoint, generally paraffinic residue of vacuum distillation of an appropriate petroleum crude oil used as a feedstock in the manufacture of OXIDISED BITUMEN used in roofing applications.

• ROOFING BITUMEN/ASPHALT BITUMEN
used for manufacture of roofing systems or roofing products, such as; bitumen shingles, BURA,POLYMER MODIFIED membranes, saturated felt UNDERLAYMENT, and roofing adhesives.

• ROOFING CEMENT
A material made by adding filler and fibres to either a BITUMEN EMULSION or CUTBACK BITUMEN to make an adhesive used for maintenance and in applying flashings on a new roof. Depending on the performance characteristics sought for particular cements, the BITUMEN used in the formulation may be OXIDISED or STRAIGHT-RUN.

• ROOFING FELT, SATURATED FELT
A sheet material, impregnated with BITUMEN, generally supplied in rolls and used in roof construction. See BITUMEN ROOFING FELT.

• ROOFING KETTLE
A vessel used to heat binders such as OXIDISED BITUMEN for use in the construction of BUILT UP ROOFING and some POLYMER MODIFIED BITUMEN roof systems.

• ROOFING SHINGLES
A STEEP-SLOPE ROOFING product. BITUMEN ROOFING SHINGLES are typically made by coating a glass mat with filled COATING BITUMEN and then surfacing with coloured mineral granules.

• ROTARY DRUM DRYER
A device in an asphalt-mixing plant used to dry and heat stone materials.

BLOWN_ASPHALT BY MELTABLE_POLYAMIDE_BAG 25KG PACKING
BLOCK OF OXIDISED BITUMEN or BITUMEN SEAL

• SATURANT BITUMEN
BITUMEN that is used to saturate organic felt to make roofing felt or to make organic based shingles. It can be STRAIGHT-RUN or OXIDISED BITUMEN.

• SATURATES
Predominantly straight and branched-chain aliphatichydrocarbons present in BITUMENS, together with alkyl naphthenes and some alkyl aromatics. This fraction forms 5–20% of the mass of BITUMENS. SCREED Leveling device at the rear of a Paving machine.

• SCREEDMAN
Person stationed at the rear of the paver, to control the distribution and grade of the ASPHALT mat as the paving machine moves forward.

• SELENICE
A NATURAL ASPHALT from Albania.

• SELF-ADHESIVE BITUMEN MEMBRANE
Roofing or waterproofing POLYMER MODIFIED BITUMEN membrane applied at ambient temperature with the peel and stick method

• SEMI-BLOWN BITUMEN
Synonym for AIR-RECTIFIED BITUMEN

• SOFT-APPLIED ROOFING
BITUMEN roofing products that are applied by heating the BITUMEN membrane sufficiently with a torch or hot air welder to ensure good adhesion to the substrate.

• SOFTENING-POINT
A specification test measuring the temperature, measured in°C, at which material under standardized test conditions attains a specific consistency. (See ASTM D36 and/or EN1427)

• SOLVENT EXTRACTS
Aromatic by-products (extracts) obtained from the refining of BASE OILS

• SOLVENT PRECIPITATION
The process by which a hard product, PROPANEPRECIPITATED ASPHALT, is separated from a VACUUM RESIDUUM by solvent precipitation (usually with propane). In the USA, this process is called ‘solvent deasphalting’ and the product, SOLVENT-REFINED ASPHALT.

• SOLVENT-REFINED ASPHALT
Term used in the USA for PROPANE-PRECIPITATED ASPHALT, also referred to PDA pitch or PDA asphalt.

• STEAM-REFINED BITUMENS
VACUUM RESIDUUMS that have been subjected to STEAM-STRIPPING. Archaic term

• STEAM STRIPPING
Injection of steam into a residuum which aids VACUUM DISTILLATION.

• STONE MASTIC ASPHALT, STONE MATRIX ASPHALT (SMA)
Referred to as STONE MASTIC ASPHALT in Europe or STONE MATRIX ASPHALT in the United States. SMA is a gap graded asphalt mixture with bitumen as a binder, composed of a coarse crushed aggregate skeleton bound with a mastic mortar (In Europe SMA is specified by EN 13108- 5, in the USA it is specified regionally by State Highways Agencies). It is paved at temperatures typically employed for conventional ASPHALT mixtures.

• STEEP-SLOPE ROOFING
Roofing products designed for a roof slope of more than 14 degrees.

• STRAIGHT-REDUCED BITUMENS
Similar to STRAIGHT-RUN BITUMENS and STEAMREFINED BITUMENS

• STRAIGHT-RUN BITUMENS VACUUM RESIDUUMS
Used as bitumen.

• STEAM STRIPPING
may have been used in their production.

• STRAIGHT REDUCED BITUMENS
refer to a Bitumen produced to a specific target grade without blending with other bitumen grades to achieve the desired result.

• SULPHUR EXTENDED ASPHALT
A hot mixed ASPHALT in which part of the BITUMINOUS BINDER is replaced by elemental sulphur, typically at levels between 20–40 %m of the original bitumen content.

• SURFACE DRESSING (Synonym for CHIP SEAL)
Process used to seal road surfaces; a thin film of bitumen, CUTBACK BITUMEN or BITUMEN EMULSIONS is spread, covered with a single or double layer of chippings, and then rolled.

• SURFACE TREATMENT
May include SURFACE DRESSING and other techniques, such as spraying with minor amounts of BITUMEN EMULSION to waterproof a surface. It is normally covered with aggregate to provide friction to the roadway.

• TEAR-OFF
To remove an existing roof system for replacement

• TERMINAL
A facility outside a refinery where bitumen is held for intermediate storage prior to delivery to (or collection by) customers.

• TERMINAL BLENDED CRUMB RUBBER MODIFIED BITUMEN
Generally consists of blending ground tire rubber of a size range from 600μm to 177μm (30 to 80 mesh) with asphalt binder at temperatures ranging from 175 to 190°C (≈ 350 to 375°F) and allowing them to react for 60 (+) minutes prior to transfer to large storage tanks. Once mixed, the rubber modified asphalt is stored at elevated temperatures.

• THERMALLY CRACKED BITUMENS
Also known as Residues (petroleum), thermal cracked, vacuum: BITUMENS produced by thermal cracking, followed by vacuum distillation.

• THERMOPLASTIC POLYMER (PLASTOMER)
A polymer type which exhibits stiffness and strength but does not recover substantially when deformed. Examples of this type of polymer used in BITUMENS are ethylene vinyl acetate, ethylene methacrylate, polyethylene, and atactic polypropylene.

• TOPPING PLANT
A ‘stand-alone’ distillation plant. Topping plants are usually found in terminals and used to remove distillate materials added to BITUMENS for transportation purposes.

• TORCHING
Application of a roofing membrane with a propane gas flame, used for melting the side of the ROOFING MEMBRANE, without addition of hot bonding BITUMEN. This is also called HOT WELDING ROOFING.

• TRINIDAD LAKE ASPHALT
A NATURAL ASPHALT obtained from the La Brea region of Trinidad.

• UNDERLAYMENT
Factory made flexible sheets of BITUMEN (OXIDISED or MODIFIED) which are used as underlay to coverings of sloping roofs (e.g. tiles, slates, shingles).

• VACUUM DISTILLATION
Distillation of ATMOSPHERIC RESIDUUM under vacuum.

• VACUUM TOWER ASPHALT EXTENDER
Terminology endorsed by the National Oil Recyclers Association applied to Used Oil Vacuum Tower Distillation Bottoms and described by CAS# 128983- 17-0. These materials have been added to BITUMEN to change the low temperature properties and to enhance the oxidation of some bitumen roofing products. Numerous other terms have been employed by the producers and users of this type of additive. When used in paving the material is added up to 10% to soften the BITUMEN for use with RAP or RAS or meet cold weather requirements. When used in OXIDISED ASPHALT it is added up to 6% as a paraffinic oil to increase penetration.

• VACUUM RESIDUUM
Residue obtained by VACUUM DISTILLATION.

• VISBREAKING
A relatively mild thermal cracking operation mainly used to reduce the viscosity and pour point of VACUUM RESIDUUMS for subsequent use in heavy fuel oils. The process converts a proportion of the residuum feedstock to distillate product, e.g. Gas oil.

• VISCOSITY
Resistance to flow of a substance when a shearing stress is imposed on the substance. For BITUMEN products, test methods include vacuum-capillary, cone and plate, orifice-type and rotational viscometers. Measurements of viscosity at varying temperatures are used by technologists in all industry segments that utilise BITUMEN materials.

• VISCOSITY-GRADED BITUMEN
BITUMEN which is graded and specified by the viscosity at a standard temperature, which is typically 60°C (140°F). ASTM D2171 and EN 12596 are the most commonly used viscosity tests.

• WARM-MIX ASPHALT
ASPHALT mixtures produced at lower temperatures as compared to those typically associated with rolled or dense graded HOT MIX ASPHALT pavement. WARM-MIX ASPHALTS are produced and placed at temperatures typically 10 – 40°C (50 – 100°F) lower than conventional rolled or dense graded ASPHALT.

• WEATHERING TEST
Various accelerated durability tests have been developed for OXIDISED BITUMENS used in roofing applications. The most prevalent is the Xenon Arc Accelerated Weathering test, where thin OXIDISED BITUMEN films are applied to aluminium panels and then subjected to light, heat, and water sprays in several combinations of time and temperature. See ASTM D4798, ASTM D1669, and ASTM D1670.

• WHITE SPIRIT
A distillate petroleum product free of rancid or objectionable odors, boiling-range 150-200°C (300- 390°F); sometimes described as ‘Stoddard solvent’.

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